The effect of motivational practices
Motivational beliefs act as favourable contexts of learning and also refer to the students’ opinion of the efficiency or effectiveness of learning and teaching methods (Boekarts, 2002). Motivational beliefs refer to the opinions, judgments, and value which include objects, events, or subject-matter domain. For example, there is a student who cannot see what the possibly learn from doing homework while another student think that doing homework is a good activity to practice subject-matter in home.
Beliefs are likely inner control which can be divided into two parts, self-efficacy beliefs and outcome expectations. Self-efficacy beliefs are beliefs that hold student’s ability by themselves related to specific domain, such as “I believe I can do this type of mathematics problem.” Outcome expectations are beliefs about the achievement or failure in specific domain, such as “I have not answered this question before and I do not have any idea about it. I am certainly blank in my mind.”
The research has indicated that motivational beliefs are the result from direct learning experiences.There is shown from the need to take consideration subject-area specific characteristic, because of the differential role of each motivational factor.This role derived from the activation of strategies in different areas, especially in mathematics. Mathematics is still perceived as a “threatening” area; one that requires the effective application of deep cognitive strategies. This cognitive engagement presupposes the development of educational practices that lower negative thinking and feeling about evaluation foster the usefulness and instrumentality of mathematics as a subject area. Successful performance in language is a very effortful process in elementary school, and seems to rely more on confidence beliefs and the use of regulatory strategies (Metallidou&Vlachou, 2007). This issue means whether students conceptualize motivation differently in various content areas, such as mathematics self-efficacy involves confidence in one’s numeric skills.
Unfavourablemotivational beliefs impede learning
Unfavourablemotivational beliefs impede the learning process because they direct the learners’ attention away from the learning activity itself, another focus instead of the previous problem is student’s low ability. Although childrens’ understanding of causality changes because of age, their beliefs about the cause of their success and failure are very resistant to change. Students who state they will never be able to finish the task successfully is an alert that they no longer perceive a relation between their actions and a positive outcome. Helping student to re-construct the relation by creating learning situations where they can experience success and get a good achievement in class. However, it is not sufficient that they get the correct solution. They also need to understand why the plan solution was correct and what they can do to enhance their ability. It seems that the students’ attention have to be drawn explicitly to the relation between their actions and the outcome.
Students who have established unfavourable motivational beliefs are not interested in such process-oriented feedback (Boekarts, 2002). It looks like students do not care about the correct way, they only want to know whether the answer is correct or not. So, if it is happened, students have to be reminded and given the emphasis in the right process. Such process-oriented feedback gives them a feeling of progress and it will stimulate them gradually to reflect their achievement.
Favourablemotivational beliefs facilitate learning
On the contrary, students are interested in doing activities because they need to learn about the subject to achieve something they want – favourable motivational belief. Students who value the learning activity are less dependent on encouragement or reward. For example, a student who likes mathematics because he thinks mathematics is easy. Then, in the future, he wants to be a space engineer. Another example, a student who does not like mathematics but still struggles with it because he remembers his dad’s words that mathematics is important. An activity is generally considered to be intrinsically motivating if external reward is not necessary for students to initiate and continue that activity. Favourable motivational beliefs are attached to the activity itself. Students who are intrinsically motivated will report that they do not have to invest a big effort.
However, not all students are intrinsically motivated because students are less motivated to learn. It is important to be aware of classroom situations and how the learning process is to facilitate students to interact with or even inhibit the motivation of students (Boekarts, 2002). To overcome this problem, students have to be addressed to find the relevant and interesting thing for themselves. For instance, finding out what their current interests and future career goals are. I think these ideas will catch students’ attention and curiosity enhancing performance and achievement of students in learning process also. Further, it allows them to adapt learning activities to their own psychological need which gives them a sense of freedom and the right to self-determination.
Student beliefs about goal orientation
Students who are ego-oriented learn less than students who are mastery-oriented (Boekarts, 2002). The way students orient themselves to learn is a strong indicator to show their achievement and work performance. Ego-oriented students are typically involved in learning tasks in order to demonstrate success (ego-oriented approach) or to hide the failure (to avoid ego-orientation) using learning strategies that are less effective than mastery-oriented students. For mastery-oriented, students usually learn they want to master new skills. This means that the process of mastery-oriented students’ motivation is different from ego-oriented students.
Such problems among students should be solved immediately, because they must know not only an important result but also the strategy of the solution. They must believe in this statement ‘process is more important than the correct result’. In the means of giving feedback in a relation to seek a right solution, encourages students to exchange ideas to other students about the strategies they used and allow them to learn from their mistakes. This is a very difficult job because of ego-oriented students become upset when they have to reflect on their mistakes. But the problem could be solved with some comments from teachers while guiding their cooperation so that progress and their efforts will be visible. Mastery-orientation will be developed when students have a pride in finding the solution process and have found the error.
Goal setting and appraisal
In recent years, achievement goal setting and also appraisal have become a dominant perspective for understanding differences in the level and quality of students’ engagement in school (Kaplan, Gheen, &Midgley, 2002). This achievement goal seems to suggest that the emphasis on mastery and performance goals in the classroom is related to students’ patterns of learning and behavior. Mastery goals refer to a focus on learning improvement and mastering skills, whereas performance goals refer to a focus on social comparison and demonstration of competence. These two goals come from the effect of motivational practices.
By Ekasatya Aldila Afriansyah