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Daftar Peserta yang Lolos Seleksi Berkas IMPoME 2012 dan Berhak Mengikuti Wawancara


 

DAFTAR WAWANCARA SELEKSI S2 IMPOME-PMRI 2012

No

Nama

Lokasi Wawancara

Tanggal Wawancara

1

Achmad Dhany Pachrudin

Surabaya

ditentukan kemudian

2

Ahmad Wachidul Kohar

Surabaya

ditentukan kemudian

3

Dimas Danar Septiyadi

Surabaya

ditentukan kemudian

4

Junaidah Wildani

Surabaya

ditentukan kemudian

5

Rizky Oktaviana Eka Putri

Surabaya

ditentukan kemudian

6

Siti Jakiah Mutmainah

Surabaya

ditentukan kemudian

7

Andika Wahyu Ferdiansyah

Surabaya

ditentukan kemudian

8

Nurul Hayati

Surabaya

ditentukan kemudian

9

Wisnu Siwi Satiti

Surabaya

ditentukan kemudian

10

Yoga Dwi Windy Kusuma Ningtyas

Surabaya

ditentukan kemudian

11

Rafael Marianus Rusik

Kupang

ditentukan kemudian

12

Talisadika Maifa

Kupang

ditentukan kemudian

13

Ermita

Makassar

19 Mar 2012, 08.00 WITA

14

Nur Wahidin Azhari

Makassar

19 Mar 2012, 08.00 WITA

15

Said Fachry Assagaf

Makassar

19 Mar 2012, 08.00 WITA

16

Salwah

Makassar

19 Mar 2012, 08.00 WITA

17

Sitti Busyrah Muchsin

Makassar

19 Mar 2012, 08.00 WITA

18

Sitti Masyitah Meliana R.

Makassar

19 Mar 2012, 08.00 WITA

19

Ummy Salmah

Makassar

19 Mar 2012, 08.00 WITA

20

I. Ketut Kertayasa

Makassar

19 Mar 2012, 08.00 WITA

21

Ambarsari Kusuma Wardani

Palembang

12 Mar 2012, 08.00 WIB

22

Lidya Cahyani

Palembang

12 Mar 2012, 08.00 WIB

23

Titi Aquarti

Palembang

12 Mar 2012, 08.00 WIB

24

Nur Rahmi Desiana

Palembang

12 Mar 2012, 08.00 WIB

25

M. Hafiz

Bandung

7 Maret 2012, 14.00 WIB

26

Gida Kadarisma

Bandung

7 Maret 2012, 14.00 WIB

27

Fanny Fathoni

Semarang

9 Maret 2012, 14.00 WIB

28

Herani Tri Lestiana

Semarang

9 Maret 2012, 14.00 WIB

29

Irkham Ulil Albab

Semarang

9 Maret 2012, 14.00 WIB

30

Sri Rejeki

Yogyakarta

12 Mar 2012, 09.00 WIB

31

Cici Tri Wanita

Yogyakarta

12 Mar 2012, 09.00 WIB

32

Wahid Yunianto

Yogyakarta

12 Mar 2012, 09.00 WIB

33

Thaibil Anwar

B.Aceh

ditentukan kemudian

34

Andrea Arifsyah NST

Medan

ditentukan kemudian

35

Nikmatul Husna

Padang

ditentukan kemudian

36

Pipit Firmanti

Padang

ditentukan kemudian

37

Ronal Rifandi

Padang

ditentukan kemudian

38

Yhance Hendra Diana

Padang

ditentukan kemudian

39

Ahmad Khairudin

Banjarmasin

ditentukan kemudian

40

Boni Fasius Hery

Banjarmasin

ditentukan kemudian

41

Yusi Riza

Banjarmasin

ditentukan kemudian

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Pendaftaran Beasiswa IMPoME 2012


Pendaftaran beasiswa IMPoME (International Master Program on Mathematics Education) periode 2012 telah dibuka, dengan persyaratan sebagai berikut:

1. Mengisi application form dengan lengkap, download di sini: stuned_form_impome_2012

2. Mengisi CV dengan lengkap,  download di sini: cv-form-neso_2012

3. Fotocopy Kartu Tanda Penduduk (KTP)

4. Pas Photo 4 x6 (1 lembar)

5. Ijazah S1

6. Transkrip nilai dengan nilai IPK minimal 3, 00

7. Sertifikat TOEFL dengan score minimal 500

8. SK CTAB (Surat Keputusan Calon Tenaga Akademik Baru) dari Rektor

Persyaratan di atas dibuat dengan ramgkap 3 ( 1 asli, 2 fotokopi) menggunakan kertas A4 di bundel berdasarkan nomer urut di atas dan di jilid menggunakan plastik mika warna putih (bening).

Mohon tidak melampirkan dokumen yang tidak kami cantumkan di atas.

Semua berkas harap dikirimkan ke:

Martha Metrica, S.E

PMRI – PPPPTK IPA Bandung

Jalan Diponegoro No.12

Bandung

Telp/Fax: 022-4213950/022 -4213949

Paling lambat tanggal 31 Desember 2011, berkas sudah kami terima.

Terima kasih.

Teachers understanding of the nature of science and classroom practice


The title of the article is “Teachers understanding of the nature of science and classroom practice: Factors that facilitate or impede the relationship”. This article is made by Norman G. Lederman who is currently Chair and Professor of Mathematics and Science Education at the Illnois Institute of Technology. He is known for his research on the development of students’ and teachers’ conceptions of nature of science and scientific inquiry. And I think, this article is one of his best works in his subject that he mastered.

In the theoretical background of this article, it started from Benchmarks for science literacy and the National science education standards’ statement. They gave a strong emphasis on the nature of science in students’ understanding. In science education, even though there are no general consensus exists at, researchers indicate some important aspects for students, such us tentative for scientific knowledge, empirically based, subjective, and so on. It seems clear that the theory has a support for explain the concept of science nowadays but there is still lack of explanation or previous research in teacher understanding or classroom practice of the nature of science.

The purpose of this article is identifying and investigating the factors that contribute to the complexity in nature. Whether teachers’ understanding of the nature of science is necessarily reflected in thinking of instruction and also classroom practice is an academic question. The researcher can facilitate the movement understanding of students in teachers’ classroom practice through the view of science education form. For the research question, there are two questions; (1) Do teachers’ understandings of the nature of science influence classroom practice? (2) What factors facilitate or impede the influence of teachers’ understandings in classroom practice? The relationship between the purpose and the question of the research show us the point of direction of this article seemed appropriate enough.

Five biology teachers, 3 males and 2 females, with some students in their biology class supported this research as a sample. It is a good sample because it has been explained in detail from the number of sample, gender, age, and also the experience of each teacher especially. It makes this research became more concrete in my eyes. It also makes viewpoint that people is formed by experience and their experience has made them to become they are now. This fact is really different with the condition in Indonesia. In Indonesia, people who became a teacher or lecturer feel it was likely a destiny for them. Ad also, so many people live in one profession only, from their graduation in one subject to pension time, they begin and finish in the same subject. They never think using their experience in one subject to be used in other subject.

There is a peculiar thing in my mind about whether the sample has represented the population or not. Because the students is came from the same school where the teacher come from, it should be the students that are used for this research is come from the same school and the same number for every teachers. Maybe it will influence the validity aspect for a little bit. But, if I think about it again, the way of taking sample and the number of students that different from each other might be able to give a broader picture of this research and that is happened because of the different samples.

Furthermore, I feel interested more in the reason of why gender is included in the requirement of sample characteristics. Maybe gender is necessary in this article considering to the difference of viewpoint of female and male. Sometimes female and male teachers when they face some cases in classroom activity have different views. For example, when there is a student who has a problem in the class, male teacher is usually rely on his vision seemed he made a distance between the student and himself. While a female teacher usually uses her touch besides her vision. When she touched a student while she ask or explain something, a student usually felt that her teacher is care with him. It is also can be said that this way encouraging a student to do the best in classroom practice.

Another thing is also interesting which are questions in questionnaire. The questions are really good and relevance with the purpose of this research. It made all teachers came up with the different answers depend on their knowledge in nature of science and classroom practice. It looks interesting, when I read the answer they seem honest and use their experience to overcome the question. Then, the other methods also relatively complete that can be used for perspective of female and male teachers. Started from the questionnaire, observation, interview, and so on made the important things are not miss by one research method because of supported by other methods. It means many methods that have been used are not made the research becomes complicated but it will clarify and support each other.

Various sources and types of data, for instance: interviews, observations, and instructional materials, allows for triangulation of data. From here, it can be seen that the results to be achieved is something relative. Logic and the idea that scientific knowledge is tentative and a lot of ideas in knowledge are to build an explanation for observed phenomena. So the logic of this study actually has the results for the depiction is not an assessment, not good or not bad but simply describes something. It is also often happened the different case in Indonesia. In Indonesia, the research is still done for the sake of a claim, good or bad, feasible or not feasible, and so forth. Knowledge is no longer regarded as absolute truth, but only tentative and dynamic.

Created by Ekasatya Aldila Afriansyah

Mahasiswa IMPoME 2011


Berdasarkan sumber p4mri.net, telah terpilih 29 orang mahasiswa dari berbagai daerah yang ditempatkan di 2 tempat yang berbeda. 14 orang di tempatkan di Universitas Negeri Surabaya (UNESA), Surabaya, dan 15 orang lainnya ditempatkan di Universitas Sriwijaya (UNSRI), Palembang. Berikut di bawah ini daftar lengkap nama mahasiswa beserta penempatannya:

Daftar Mahasiswa IMPoME PMRI yang Lulus Tahun 2011

No

Nama

Tempat Pendidikan

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

Adri Nofrianto

Agnita Siska Pramasdyahsari

Evi Febriana

Febrian

Ishariyadi

Ismi Ridha Asy-Syifaa

Matius Pai’pinan

Mawarni

Mulia Putra

Puji Astuti

Rindu Alriavindrafunny

Shofan Fiangga

Susilahudin Putra Wangsa

Weni Dwi Pratiwi

Bustang

Dewi Hamidah

Dwi Afrini Rizma

Elika Kurniadi

Evangelista Lus Widiana Palupi

Moch. Luthfianto

Muhammad Ridhoni

Novita Sari

Sakinah Nurul Fajri

Shahibul Ahyan

Sylvana Novilia Sumarto

Christi Matitaputty

Farida Nursyahida

Hermina Disnawati

Navel Oktaviandy Mangelep

Universitas Negeri Surabaya

Universitas Negeri Surabaya

Universitas Negeri Surabaya

Universitas Negeri Surabaya

Universitas Negeri Surabaya

Universitas Negeri Surabaya

Universitas Negeri Surabaya

Universitas Negeri Surabaya

Universitas Negeri Surabaya

Universitas Negeri Surabaya

Universitas Negeri Surabaya

Universitas Negeri Surabaya

Universitas Negeri Surabaya

Universitas Negeri Surabaya

Universitas Sriwijaya

Universitas Sriwijaya

Universitas Sriwijaya

Universitas Sriwijaya

Universitas Sriwijaya

Universitas Sriwijaya

Universitas Sriwijaya

Universitas Sriwijaya

Universitas Sriwijaya

Universitas Sriwijaya

Universitas Sriwijaya

Universitas Sriwijaya

Universitas Sriwijaya

Universitas Sriwijaya

Universitas Sriwijaya

Motivation in learning mathematics


Motivation in learning mathematics

In the last fifty years, researchers had curiosity with the effect of motivation. They studied students’ motivation and learned a great deal about the effect of motivational practices on school learning. It pointed to more simple aspects, such as achievement motivation, intrinsic motivation, and goal orientation as well as the effect of teacher practices which promote motivational beliefs. To be able to talk further about motivation in learning mathematics, it is essential to know what motivation actually means. Motivation is defined as an internal state that arouses, directs, and maintains behaviour (Woolfolk, 2008). But simply stated motivation is a reason of students’ thinking in a given situation. In Self-Determination Theory, motivation is distinguished between different types based on different reasons or goals – intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation refers to doing something because it is certainly interesting or enjoyable. While extrinsic motivation refers to doing something because it leads to a separable outcome (Ryan &Deci, 2000). The examples of intrinsic motivation are personal interest in a satisfaction, subject, or pleasure in learning tasks. Whereas the examples of external motivation are awards, parent and teacher praise, and value.

Researchers found that although students have achievement, ability, and perceived competence which support the desire in learning mathematics, in fact intrinsic motivation comes to decrease developmentally (Lepper, Corpus, &Iyengar, 2005). This is one of motivational problem toward achievement, ability, and perceived competence of student learning. Also, researchers tend to internalize the activity’s initially external regulation in which people tend to take the regulation and integrate it with their sense of self (Ryan &Deci, 2000). It is likely that students must feel comfortable with mathematics, must be challenged to achieve, and must expect to succeed before the development of intrinsic motivation can begin. Therefore, this kind of problem has to be overcome, it is important to investigate role motivational practices on school learning. The question is whether students who have a good motivation can produce a good student achievement too? To answer this question, I will try to describe some researches which can help me to find the answer. First, I will describe the effect of motivational practices, then the second is whatstudents’ motivation affects, and the last is how motivation can be improved. As people tend to think that students who have a good motivation will lead into a good achievement too, this research aims to trace whether the opinion is true or not.

The effect of motivational practices

Motivational beliefs

Motivational beliefs act as favourable contexts of learning and also refer to the students’ opinion of the efficiency or effectiveness of learning and teaching methods (Boekarts, 2002). Motivational beliefs refer to the opinions, judgments, and value which include objects, events, or subject-matter domain. For example, there is a student who cannot see what the possibly learn from doing homework while another student think that doing homework is a good activity to practice subject-matter in home.

Beliefs are likely inner control which can be divided into two parts, self-efficacy beliefs and outcome expectations. Self-efficacy beliefs are beliefs that hold student’s ability by themselves related to specific domain, such as “I believe I can do this type of mathematics problem.” Outcome expectations are beliefs about the achievement or failure in specific domain, such as “I have not answered this question before and I do not have any idea about it. I am certainly blank in my mind.”

The research has indicated that motivational beliefs are the result from direct learning experiences.There is shown from the need to take consideration subject-area specific characteristic, because of the differential role of each motivational factor.This role derived from the activation of strategies in different areas, especially in mathematics. Mathematics is still perceived as a “threatening” area; one that requires the effective application of deep cognitive strategies. This cognitive engagement presupposes the development of educational practices that lower negative thinking and feeling about evaluation foster the usefulness and instrumentality of mathematics as a subject area. Successful performance in language is a very effortful process in elementary school, and seems to rely more on confidence beliefs and the use of regulatory strategies (Metallidou&Vlachou, 2007). This issue means whether students conceptualize motivation differently in various content areas, such as mathematics self-efficacy involves confidence in one’s numeric skills.

Unfavourablemotivational beliefs impede learning

Unfavourablemotivational beliefs impede the learning process because they direct the learners’ attention away from the learning activity itself, another focus instead of the previous problem is student’s low ability. Although childrens’ understanding of causality changes because of age, their beliefs about the cause of their success and failure are very resistant to change. Students who state they will never be able to finish the task successfully is an alert that they no longer perceive a relation between their actions and a positive outcome. Helping student to re-construct the relation by creating learning situations where they can experience success and get a good achievement in class. However, it is not sufficient that they get the correct solution. They also need to understand why the plan solution was correct and what they can do to enhance their ability. It seems that the students’ attention have to be drawn explicitly to the relation between their actions and the outcome.

Students who have established unfavourable motivational beliefs are not interested in such process-oriented feedback (Boekarts, 2002). It looks like students do not care about the correct way, they only want to know whether the answer is correct or not. So, if it is happened, students have to be reminded and given the emphasis in the right process. Such process-oriented feedback gives them a feeling of progress and it will stimulate them gradually to reflect their achievement.

Favourablemotivational beliefs facilitate learning

On the contrary, students are interested in doing activities because they need to learn about the subject to achieve something they want – favourable motivational belief. Students who value the learning activity are less dependent on encouragement or reward. For example, a student who likes mathematics because he thinks mathematics is easy. Then, in the future, he wants to be a space engineer. Another example, a student who does not like mathematics but still struggles with it because he remembers his dad’s words that mathematics is important. An activity is generally considered to be intrinsically motivating if external reward is not necessary for students to initiate and continue that activity. Favourable motivational beliefs are attached to the activity itself. Students who are intrinsically motivated will report that they do not have to invest a big effort.

However, not all students are intrinsically motivated because students are less motivated to learn. It is important to be aware of classroom situations and how the learning process is to facilitate students to interact with or even inhibit the motivation of students (Boekarts, 2002). To overcome this problem, students have to be addressed to find the relevant and interesting thing for themselves. For instance, finding out what their current interests and future career goals are. I think these ideas will catch students’ attention and curiosity enhancing performance and achievement of students in learning process also. Further, it allows them to adapt learning activities to their own psychological need which gives them a sense of freedom and the right to self-determination.

Student beliefs about goal orientation

Students who are ego-oriented learn less than students who are mastery-oriented (Boekarts, 2002). The way students orient themselves to learn is a strong indicator to show their achievement and work performance. Ego-oriented students are typically involved in learning tasks in order to demonstrate success (ego-oriented approach) or to hide the failure (to avoid ego-orientation) using learning strategies that are less effective than mastery-oriented students. For mastery-oriented, students usually learn they want to master new skills. This means that the process of mastery-oriented students’ motivation is different from ego-oriented students.

Such problems among students should be solved immediately, because they must know not only an important result but also the strategy of the solution. They must believe in this statement ‘process is more important than the correct result’. In the means of giving feedback in a relation to seek a right solution, encourages students to exchange ideas to other students about the strategies they used and allow them to learn from their mistakes. This is a very difficult job because of ego-oriented students become upset when they have to reflect on their mistakes. But the problem could be solved with some comments from teachers while guiding their cooperation so that progress and their efforts will be visible. Mastery-orientation will be developed when students have a pride in finding the solution process and have found the error.

Goal setting and appraisal

In recent years, achievement goal setting and also appraisal have become a dominant perspective for understanding differences in the level and quality of students’ engagement in school (Kaplan, Gheen, &Midgley, 2002). This achievement goal seems to suggest that the emphasis on mastery and performance goals in the classroom is related to students’ patterns of learning and behavior. Mastery goals refer to a focus on learning improvement and mastering skills, whereas performance goals refer to a focus on social comparison and demonstration of competence. These two goals come from the effect of motivational practices.

What affects students’ motivation?

Several things affect students’ motivation, such as student beliefs about learning, teacher and students’ interaction, and curriculum content stood up as significant predictors of motivation to learn. The explanation of all students’ motivation affects are described below.

Student beliefs about learning

Learning mathematics can develop students’ ability to think in quantitative terms but also can improve skills such as analysis and problem solving. People believe that mathematics is a subject that is difficult and unattractive. But, through technical assistance and some ways with innovative approaches in teaching mathematics, I believe that mathematics can have an attraction and sharpen students’ creativity as well. To be able to talk to students how important mathematics is having understanding of students’ beliefs in learning mathematics so as to find ways to improve students’ performance and achievement in mathematics (Tahir, 2009). He stated that there were significant differences between students’ beliefs based on institutions and mathematics grade and there were no significant differences among beliefs based on gender, secondary education, and major. The data in this research was taken from three different higher institutions in the East Coast of Malaysia. Students were randomly selected using the convenience sampling method. A total of 376 students (100 male and 276 female) participated. They answered a questionnaire in which contains of 17 statements pertaining to students’ beliefs towards learning mathematics. These items were measured using a 5-point, Likert-scale type format with the following anchors: 1 = strongly agree, 2 = agree, 3 = neutral, 4 = disagree, and 5 =strongly disagree.

The results showed that a significant relationship means the difference between the beliefs of students based on institutions and mathematics classes and there was no significant difference meaning among students beliefs based on gender, secondary education, and major education. This would mean that students who come from the same institutions and the same math class also do different things in their beliefs in mathematics. This conclude that student appreciate the subject and hold positive beliefs in learning mathematics (Tahir, 2009).

Teacher and students’ interaction

Teacher support is one of the factors effecting motivation and student achievement. The discovery that the views of teachers in teacher-child relationship characterized by safety and the possibility of dependence, such as parent-child relationship. Relationship characterized by dependency seems to be one in which the child shows a search aid for teachers. On the other hand, security in teacher-child relationship is most clearly assessed with items that reflect the confidence and sense of student understanding. Security was described by behavioural indications of open communication and a sense that children’s needs for support and help to feel fulfilled (Pianta&Nimetz, 1991). So, teachers have a direct effect on students’ motivation to learn (Khamis, Dukmak, &Elhoweris, 2008). It indicates that almost all activities of the teachers which are done in the classroom have effects (negative effect or positive effect) on students’ motivation to learn mathematics. For instance, teaching style and patterns of interaction are two kinds of teacher activities that have to be structured in well-organised course.

Students’ perceptions of teacher caring correspond the cooperation (helping/friendly and understanding), whereas non-caring characteristics are included in opposition (dissatisfied and admonishing). For example, a caring teacher ‘‘makes class interesting’’, ‘‘pays attention’’, ‘‘listens’’, ‘‘trusts me’’, ‘‘acts as a friend’’, and ‘‘asks if I need help’’. Uncaring teacher examples include: ‘‘screams’’, ‘‘yells’’, ‘‘embarrasses’’, ‘‘insults’’, and ‘‘doesn’t try to help you’’ (Lapointe, Legault, &Batiste, 2005).

From several descriptions of the research above, the role of perceptions of teacher behaviour in students’ motivational beliefs play a significant role in average and talented young adolescents’ self-efficacy, intrinsic value, and test anxiety in learning mathematics. It is well documented that these motivational variables are important factors in student achievement.

Content of the curriculum to motivate students

Social-constructivist theory confirms the importance of community and interactive power on motivation, in which turn into effective teaching links in ways to promote involvement and delivery discussions, especially in ways that encourage active participation and equal. This means that the pedagogical approach also motivates students to be considered important from the perspective of responding to diverse student learning styles and preferences. The cases of various strategies motivate and engage students, for example, the use of assessment and feedback, including the provision of scaffold student choice and control in assessment practices on various topics, methods, and criteria. Behaviour provided student-centered approach which provokes a high level investigation and analysis, and approaches that stimulate students to use original content and imaginative learning activities.

There is a research using a six-item Likert-type scale that investigates the degree to which students like or dislike the school work and courses and task difficulty, and whether the subject-matter is interesting or boring (Khamis, Dukmak, &Elhoweris, 2008).They said that moderate positive correlations were found in curriculum content. The impact of curriculum content was evidenced on students’ motivation to learn. Students who reported that they like the subject-matter, school work course, and task were more likely to report higher level of motivation to learn toward student achievement.

How to improve students’ motivation

It is difficult to improve students’ motivation, but it is not possible to do it. Several researchers showed this by describing some ways to improve motivation of students.

Assessment

The assessment process in the classroom can be an important role in improving motivation and student achievement. Teachers can help to improve student performance by sharing. Through student involvement in the assessment process, students learn to be responsible in their own learning. Feeling accountability and control can increase students’ intrinsic motivation to learn and to improve success. In addition, teachers have the opportunity to support student success by providing the application and assessment with good communication quality.

A teacher who develops useful assessments, provides corrective instruction, and gives students second chances to demonstrate success can improve their instruction and help students to learn. “When teachers’ classroom assessments become an integral part of the instructional process and a central ingredient in their efforts to help students learn, the benefits of assessment for both students and teachers will be boundless” (Guskey, 2003). In addition, by determining exactly what students have learned and not learned, assessment is useful for both teachers and students.

Assessment should be no longer seen as just a tool to determine academic achievement. Various options exist in the assessment process can influence student motivation and achievement. When students and teachers enter into an assessment relationship, they became a team with a clear, mutual learning goals, and task-specific assessment tasks. As teachers began to implement new strategies by using assessment as an instructional tool, they will recognize the students’ ability to take control of their own success and accept responsibility for their own learning. This feeling of empowerment will inspire and motivate students toward greater achievement.

A self-paced program

One useful framework addresses the multiple dimensions of motivation and engagement that are relevant to academic outcomes in students’ lives. Contextualizing motivation and engagement in a multidimensional way communicates to students that there are many ways in which they can succeed from a motivation and engagement perspective (Martin, 2010). A self-paced program for students sustained motivation strengths and improve motivation weakness. It separates into positive motivation thoughts (self-belief, learning focus, and valuing of school), positive motivation behaviours (planning, study management, and persistence), negative motivation thoughts (anxiety, failure avoidance, and uncertain control), and negative motivation behaviours (self-sabotage and disengagement).There are many direct strategies that educators, parents, and students can use these strategies to enhance motivation and to maintain the strength of motivation.

Classroom environment

Achievement goal theory has emerged as one of the most prominent theories of achievement motivation. It uses a goal framework achievement in the influence of classroom and school environments. Then, it will improve students’ academic motivation and achievement also. Considerable evidence suggests that elementary and secondary students show the most positive motivation and learning patterns when their school settings emphasize mastery, understanding, and improving skills and knowledge(Meece, Anderman, &Anderman, 2006).

The findings of environmental studies in the classroom have a number of interesting and important implications for both practice and further research (Opolot-Okurut, 2010). He said that from a practical standpoint, there are three clear implications of the discovery. First, teachers must be aware of the different aspects of their classroom environment. For example, a modified instrument, which is used in the classroom to assess aspects of teacher support, student involvement, task orientation, cooperation among students, and equity in the classroom environment. Students’ consideration of the environmental aspects of their classes differs in the two types of school and maybe between classes within the same school. But, in addition, there are several other aspects of classroom learning environment which is covered in other classroom environment instruments and are worth knowing. Second, teachers should give more emphasis on the dimensions assessed in order to increase student motivation to learn mathematics. Third, in general, teachers should pay more attention to their learning classroom environment and change them. It seems that it is suggesting the teachers wish to improve student motivation towards mathematics, in general, should emphasize the learning environment dimensions that have assessed.

Conclusion

This essay begins with the question whether students who have a good motivation will lead into a good achievement too? The answer is not directional answer, such as yes or no, but it depends on the point of view of some cases. These cases mean that the influence of student who has a good motivation is not always produce a good student achievement. It depends on several things, such as the effect of motivation itself toward students achievement, some affects that happened due to students’ motivation, and also keep the motivation existed then enhanced it.

Many people said that bad teaching kills motivation and that good teaching brings out the best in students of all ages. The principles that guide motivated learning are important to know to encourage students’ motivation to develop independent learning skills and also a good achievement for students. I try to describe the principles in such a way that gain insight into the reasons why students are or are not motivated to learn in the context of the classroom. However, these principles have to be adapted firstly to the local context so students can focus on their beliefs, opinions, and values and how these motivational beliefs affect learning. Knowledge of motivational beliefs will help them to create learning environments that are well suited to their psychological needs.

However, it should be clear about the fact that causality and improvement of students’ motivation are different each other. For example, from the explanation before, assessment is one of the media that can improve students’ motivation.  Instead of it, assessment can be an affect to students’ motivation in the same time. It can be happened if the content of curriculum is applied an assessment in learning process. That is why the position of the studies is not always clear.

There are some general aspects that should be considered when describing the relation of all these studies. Because student achievement needs existence of motivation, there must be a relation between those two studies. But when I criticized it, I think those two studies not always have a clear relation. In fact, there are some studies that concern to the lack of theoretical guidance driving the conduct of the majority of studies. One of the research stated that the research on mathematics education has been primarily descriptive and inadequately conceptualized. Often motivation has been described to add a little thing to studies originally focused on others factors, such as mathematics achievement (Middleton &Spanias, 1999).

Overall, it seems that a good student achievement can be achieved if student has a good motivation too. Even though there are still existed unclearly relation among studies, the aim of the present study has been obtained positively. Simply I can say “A good motivation produce a good achievement also”.

References

Boekaerts, M. (2002).Motivation to learn.International Bureau of Education: Educational Practices Series, 10.

Guskey, T. R., (2003). How Classroom Assessments Can Improve Learning. Educational Leadership, 60 (5),7-11.

Kaplan, A., Gheen, M., & Midgley, C. (2002). Classroom goal structure and student distruptivebehaviour.British Journal of Educational Pstchology, 72, 191-211.

Khamis, V., Dukmak, Samir., & Elhoweris, H. (2008). Factors affecting the motivation to learn among United Arab Emirates middle and high school students.Educational Studies, 34 (3), 191-200.

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How to improve students’ motivation


How to improve students’ motivation

It is difficult to improve students’ motivation, but it is not possible to do it. Several researchers showed this by describing some ways to improve motivation of students.

Assessment

The assessment process in the classroom can be an important role in improving motivation and student achievement. Teachers can help to improve student performance by sharing. Through student involvement in the assessment process, students learn to be responsible in their own learning. Feeling accountability and control can increase students’ intrinsic motivation to learn and to improve success. In addition, teachers have the opportunity to support student success by providing the application and assessment with good communication quality.

A teacher who develops useful assessments, provides corrective instruction, and gives students second chances to demonstrate success can improve their instruction and help students to learn. “When teachers’ classroom assessments become an integral part of the instructional process and a central ingredient in their efforts to help students learn, the benefits of assessment for both students and teachers will be boundless” (Guskey, 2003). In addition, by determining exactly what students have learned and not learned, assessment is useful for both teachers and students.

Assessment should be no longer seen as just a tool to determine academic achievement. Various options exist in the assessment process can influence student motivation and achievement. When students and teachers enter into an assessment relationship, they became a team with a clear, mutual learning goals, and task-specific assessment tasks. As teachers began to implement new strategies by using assessment as an instructional tool, they will recognize the students’ ability to take control of their own success and accept responsibility for their own learning. This feeling of empowerment will inspire and motivate students toward greater achievement.

A self-paced program

One useful framework addresses the multiple dimensions of motivation and engagement that are relevant to academic outcomes in students’ lives. Contextualizing motivation and engagement in a multidimensional way communicates to students that there are many ways in which they can succeed from a motivation and engagement perspective (Martin, 2010). A self-paced program for students sustained motivation strengths and improve motivation weakness. It separates into positive motivation thoughts (self-belief, learning focus, and valuing of school), positive motivation behaviours (planning, study management, and persistence), negative motivation thoughts (anxiety, failure avoidance, and uncertain control), and negative motivation behaviours (self-sabotage and disengagement).There are many direct strategies that educators, parents, and students can use these strategies to enhance motivation and to maintain the strength of motivation.

Classroom environment

Achievement goal theory has emerged as one of the most prominent theories of achievement motivation. It uses a goal framework achievement in the influence of classroom and school environments. Then, it will improve students’ academic motivation and achievement also. Considerable evidence suggests that elementary and secondary students show the most positive motivation and learning patterns when their school settings emphasize mastery, understanding, and improving skills and knowledge(Meece, Anderman, &Anderman, 2006).

The findings of environmental studies in the classroom have a number of interesting and important implications for both practice and further research (Opolot-Okurut, 2010). He said that from a practical standpoint, there are three clear implications of the discovery. First, teachers must be aware of the different aspects of their classroom environment. For example, a modified instrument, which is used in the classroom to assess aspects of teacher support, student involvement, task orientation, cooperation among students, and equity in the classroom environment. Students’ consideration of the environmental aspects of their classes differs in the two types of school and maybe between classes within the same school. But, in addition, there are several other aspects of classroom learning environment which is covered in other classroom environment instruments and are worth knowing. Second, teachers should give more emphasis on the dimensions assessed in order to increase student motivation to learn mathematics. Third, in general, teachers should pay more attention to their learning classroom environment and change them. It seems that it is suggesting the teachers wish to improve student motivation towards mathematics, in general, should emphasize the learning environment dimensions that have assessed.

By Ekasatya Aldila Afriansyah

What affects students’ motivation?


What affects students’ motivation?

Several things affect students’ motivation, such as student beliefs about learning, teacher and students’ interaction, and curriculum content stood up as significant predictors of motivation to learn. The explanation of all students’ motivation affects are described below.

Student beliefs about learning

Learning mathematics can develop students’ ability to think in quantitative terms but also can improve skills such as analysis and problem solving. People believe that mathematics is a subject that is difficult and unattractive. But, through technical assistance and some ways with innovative approaches in teaching mathematics, I believe that mathematics can have an attraction and sharpen students’ creativity as well. To be able to talk to students how important mathematics is having understanding of students’ beliefs in learning mathematics so as to find ways to improve students’ performance and achievement in mathematics (Tahir, 2009). He stated that there were significant differences between students’ beliefs based on institutions and mathematics grade and there were no significant differences among beliefs based on gender, secondary education, and major. The data in this research was taken from three different higher institutions in the East Coast of Malaysia. Students were randomly selected using the convenience sampling method. A total of 376 students (100 male and 276 female) participated. They answered a questionnaire in which contains of 17 statements pertaining to students’ beliefs towards learning mathematics. These items were measured using a 5-point, Likert-scale type format with the following anchors: 1 = strongly agree, 2 = agree, 3 = neutral, 4 = disagree, and 5 =strongly disagree.

The results showed that a significant relationship means the difference between the beliefs of students based on institutions and mathematics classes and there was no significant difference meaning among students beliefs based on gender, secondary education, and major education. This would mean that students who come from the same institutions and the same math class also do different things in their beliefs in mathematics. This conclude that student appreciate the subject and hold positive beliefs in learning mathematics (Tahir, 2009).

Teacher and students’ interaction

Teacher support is one of the factors effecting motivation and student achievement. The discovery that the views of teachers in teacher-child relationship characterized by safety and the possibility of dependence, such as parent-child relationship. Relationship characterized by dependency seems to be one in which the child shows a search aid for teachers. On the other hand, security in teacher-child relationship is most clearly assessed with items that reflect the confidence and sense of student understanding. Security was described by behavioural indications of open communication and a sense that children’s needs for support and help to feel fulfilled (Pianta&Nimetz, 1991). So, teachers have a direct effect on students’ motivation to learn (Khamis, Dukmak, &Elhoweris, 2008). It indicates that almost all activities of the teachers which are done in the classroom have effects (negative effect or positive effect) on students’ motivation to learn mathematics. For instance, teaching style and patterns of interaction are two kinds of teacher activities that have to be structured in well-organised course.

Students’ perceptions of teacher caring correspond the cooperation (helping/friendly and understanding), whereas non-caring characteristics are included in opposition (dissatisfied and admonishing). For example, a caring teacher ‘‘makes class interesting’’, ‘‘pays attention’’, ‘‘listens’’, ‘‘trusts me’’, ‘‘acts as a friend’’, and ‘‘asks if I need help’’. Uncaring teacher examples include: ‘‘screams’’, ‘‘yells’’, ‘‘embarrasses’’, ‘‘insults’’, and ‘‘doesn’t try to help you’’ (Lapointe, Legault, &Batiste, 2005).

From several descriptions of the research above, the role of perceptions of teacher behaviour in students’ motivational beliefs play a significant role in average and talented young adolescents’ self-efficacy, intrinsic value, and test anxiety in learning mathematics. It is well documented that these motivational variables are important factors in student achievement.

Content of the curriculum to motivate students

Social-constructivist theory confirms the importance of community and interactive power on motivation, in which turn into effective teaching links in ways to promote involvement and delivery discussions, especially in ways that encourage active participation and equal. This means that the pedagogical approach also motivates students to be considered important from the perspective of responding to diverse student learning styles and preferences. The cases of various strategies motivate and engage students, for example, the use of assessment and feedback, including the provision of scaffold student choice and control in assessment practices on various topics, methods, and criteria. Behaviour provided student-centered approach which provokes a high level investigation and analysis, and approaches that stimulate students to use original content and imaginative learning activities.

There is a research using a six-item Likert-type scale that investigates the degree to which students like or dislike the school work and courses and task difficulty, and whether the subject-matter is interesting or boring (Khamis, Dukmak, &Elhoweris, 2008).They said that moderate positive correlations were found in curriculum content. The impact of curriculum content was evidenced on students’ motivation to learn. Students who reported that they like the subject-matter, school work course, and task were more likely to report higher level of motivation to learn toward student achievement.

By Ekasatya Aldila Afriansyah

The effect of motivational practices


The effect of motivational practices

Motivational beliefs

Motivational beliefs act as favourable contexts of learning and also refer to the students’ opinion of the efficiency or effectiveness of learning and teaching methods (Boekarts, 2002). Motivational beliefs refer to the opinions, judgments, and value which include objects, events, or subject-matter domain. For example, there is a student who cannot see what the possibly learn from doing homework while another student think that doing homework is a good activity to practice subject-matter in home.

Beliefs are likely inner control which can be divided into two parts, self-efficacy beliefs and outcome expectations. Self-efficacy beliefs are beliefs that hold student’s ability by themselves related to specific domain, such as “I believe I can do this type of mathematics problem.” Outcome expectations are beliefs about the achievement or failure in specific domain, such as “I have not answered this question before and I do not have any idea about it. I am certainly blank in my mind.”

The research has indicated that motivational beliefs are the result from direct learning experiences.There is shown from the need to take consideration subject-area specific characteristic, because of the differential role of each motivational factor.This role derived from the activation of strategies in different areas, especially in mathematics. Mathematics is still perceived as a “threatening” area; one that requires the effective application of deep cognitive strategies. This cognitive engagement presupposes the development of educational practices that lower negative thinking and feeling about evaluation foster the usefulness and instrumentality of mathematics as a subject area. Successful performance in language is a very effortful process in elementary school, and seems to rely more on confidence beliefs and the use of regulatory strategies (Metallidou&Vlachou, 2007). This issue means whether students conceptualize motivation differently in various content areas, such as mathematics self-efficacy involves confidence in one’s numeric skills.

Unfavourablemotivational beliefs impede learning

Unfavourablemotivational beliefs impede the learning process because they direct the learners’ attention away from the learning activity itself, another focus instead of the previous problem is student’s low ability. Although childrens’ understanding of causality changes because of age, their beliefs about the cause of their success and failure are very resistant to change. Students who state they will never be able to finish the task successfully is an alert that they no longer perceive a relation between their actions and a positive outcome. Helping student to re-construct the relation by creating learning situations where they can experience success and get a good achievement in class. However, it is not sufficient that they get the correct solution. They also need to understand why the plan solution was correct and what they can do to enhance their ability. It seems that the students’ attention have to be drawn explicitly to the relation between their actions and the outcome.

Students who have established unfavourable motivational beliefs are not interested in such process-oriented feedback (Boekarts, 2002). It looks like students do not care about the correct way, they only want to know whether the answer is correct or not. So, if it is happened, students have to be reminded and given the emphasis in the right process. Such process-oriented feedback gives them a feeling of progress and it will stimulate them gradually to reflect their achievement.

Favourablemotivational beliefs facilitate learning

On the contrary, students are interested in doing activities because they need to learn about the subject to achieve something they want – favourable motivational belief. Students who value the learning activity are less dependent on encouragement or reward. For example, a student who likes mathematics because he thinks mathematics is easy. Then, in the future, he wants to be a space engineer. Another example, a student who does not like mathematics but still struggles with it because he remembers his dad’s words that mathematics is important. An activity is generally considered to be intrinsically motivating if external reward is not necessary for students to initiate and continue that activity. Favourable motivational beliefs are attached to the activity itself. Students who are intrinsically motivated will report that they do not have to invest a big effort.

However, not all students are intrinsically motivated because students are less motivated to learn. It is important to be aware of classroom situations and how the learning process is to facilitate students to interact with or even inhibit the motivation of students (Boekarts, 2002). To overcome this problem, students have to be addressed to find the relevant and interesting thing for themselves. For instance, finding out what their current interests and future career goals are. I think these ideas will catch students’ attention and curiosity enhancing performance and achievement of students in learning process also. Further, it allows them to adapt learning activities to their own psychological need which gives them a sense of freedom and the right to self-determination.

Student beliefs about goal orientation

Students who are ego-oriented learn less than students who are mastery-oriented (Boekarts, 2002). The way students orient themselves to learn is a strong indicator to show their achievement and work performance. Ego-oriented students are typically involved in learning tasks in order to demonstrate success (ego-oriented approach) or to hide the failure (to avoid ego-orientation) using learning strategies that are less effective than mastery-oriented students. For mastery-oriented, students usually learn they want to master new skills. This means that the process of mastery-oriented students’ motivation is different from ego-oriented students.

Such problems among students should be solved immediately, because they must know not only an important result but also the strategy of the solution. They must believe in this statement ‘process is more important than the correct result’. In the means of giving feedback in a relation to seek a right solution, encourages students to exchange ideas to other students about the strategies they used and allow them to learn from their mistakes. This is a very difficult job because of ego-oriented students become upset when they have to reflect on their mistakes. But the problem could be solved with some comments from teachers while guiding their cooperation so that progress and their efforts will be visible. Mastery-orientation will be developed when students have a pride in finding the solution process and have found the error.

Goal setting and appraisal

In recent years, achievement goal setting and also appraisal have become a dominant perspective for understanding differences in the level and quality of students’ engagement in school (Kaplan, Gheen, &Midgley, 2002). This achievement goal seems to suggest that the emphasis on mastery and performance goals in the classroom is related to students’ patterns of learning and behavior. Mastery goals refer to a focus on learning improvement and mastering skills, whereas performance goals refer to a focus on social comparison and demonstration of competence. These two goals come from the effect of motivational practices.

By Ekasatya Aldila Afriansyah

Report of CD-ROM Exploring Playgrounds


Report of CD-ROM Exploring Playgrounds

Unitizing, using numbers to counts group of objects rather than single object, is one of the big idea that important to understand multiplication and also to understand equivalence. It is happened through the process of learning classroom. In this process, there is model, representations of mathematical relationships used by student to organize their activity and solve problems, which can facilitate student to construct their thinking creatively. For example, an array, a rectangular arrangement of rows and columns, is a model that can represent multiplicative relations and student can use it as a tool to organize and explore quadratic relations.

This present observation has been done in Greenwich Village Middle School, Region 9 of New York in the West Village area of Manhattan. The class is seventh grade math class of 22 students, Kara Imm is the teacher. She teach student about multiplication of fractions with the context, a real and imaginable situation used by a teacher to solve mathematizing. She wants to know what strategies student use and what mathematical idea are they constructing.

Kara start from real life problem, the area problem as context, “There are two parks, Carol and Flatbush, in Brooklyn that have empty slot with width 50 yards and length 100 yards. Each park will be built playground with blacktop, a place for playing kickball and basketball In Carol Park, of lot is playground and  of playground is blacktop. While in Flatbush Park,  of lot is playground and of playground is blacktop. So, where in which park would you have more space for blacktop?”. This is a really good question for getting the meaning of fraction in area problem. It seems that a reverse of fraction numbers in different park is intended to make student compare between two parks and found what the idea is.

Student began to do the problem in pairs and asked them to write down the result in a poster. It seems for me that Kara want to make all of student thinking the solution by himself and also share the idea what he think with his friend. Sharing and discussing is important to achieve things in broader idea. In this part of activity, I see Kara has to support many pairs because students are looked feeling difficult to get the meaning of the problem above. Sometimes they do not concern of what part of the fraction it is. For example, they defined of lot is playground and  of lot is blacktop also. It made a misconception and would not get the right answer. Therefore, Kara gave a support for the student who is faced up with these kinds of cases.

In the next meetings, Kara did a math congress, student come together as a larger group to present, question, and prove their solutions to each other after they have investigated, and four groups of pairs have been chosen to represent their result. I think the order of the group has been arranged in such a way according to Kara’s thinking. Therefore, it will be rather easy for Kara to guide the student in constructing the idea of unitizing in a right concept. In the first and second presentation, there is only a slightly different drawing model. I could say that the second drawing presentation is better than the first because the second drawing model is precisely right not only in the answer of the number rectangular of blacktop space but also in the answer of the number rectangular of remaining space. The third drawing model built the idea of “doubling strategy” I could say it equivalent concept – unitizing. The last presentation is rather same with second presentation. Many students said that the rectangular is flipped but I think it is not like that. It only seems like that but, in fact, if student aware of rectangular form in each park is different, the student would not say the rectangular is flipped.

From the process and the result of activities, I get some strategies and mathematical ideas that student used. The strategies are existed, such as: doubling and halving, splitting the rectangular (horizontal or vertical ways), comparing each rectangular, and recognizing the pattern. For the mathematical ideas, student came up with some ideas, such as multiplicative operation, unitizing, numerator (the top number in a fraction) and denominator (the bottom in a fraction). So, Kara has done her job with a good way of teaching using a mini-lesson, an investigation, and a math congress to emphasize the active nature of investigation – Math Workshop.

By Ekasatya Aldila Afriansyah

Research Report of Place Value from Choosing Article


Researchers indicated many errors happened in arithmetical task’ pupils, this could be pointed to difficulty with place value concept in decimal number especially. To perceive the full understanding of place value, pupils conceptualize multi-digit numbers as collections of units not as multi-unit structures based on powers of 10. For instance, 37 are looked as a collection of 37 units rather than as three tens and seven units. This present study taken a sample of 262 pupils aged between 7 and 12 years from four primary schools in the Greater Belfast area with variety of pupils’ social background.

This research suggested the question of whether or not pupils can perform routine mathematical tasks, and to examine more closely the development of place value concepts. It was also known little comparatively that the structure of pupils’ multi-digit number concepts in the early stages of development and it might be here that the roots of later weaknesses are to be found. Therefore, the present study set out to examine mental models of number throughout the primary school years.

In addition, in this present study, this property was used to explore multi-digit number concepts at primary school level, through examination and analysis of pupils’ concrete representations of written numerals, together with verbal representations and explanations. Further deeply explanation for pupils’ understanding of number concepts was divided into four particularly attention, such as: understanding of the apparatus, quantity and type of materials used, spatial organization of materials, and explanations of spatial organization.

Understanding of the apparatus meant that the pupils knew how to use the apparatus (media of learning material) and perceived concrete materials as a crutch in understanding of number concepts. For example, those who did not use the materials were proud of this; those who could not use the materials often admitted the fact rather shamefacedly plus explanation that they were not good at mathematics. This data is taken up with pupils’ ages from 7 till 12 years old representing tens and hundreds numbers and also with pupils’ ages from 10 to 12 years only for representing thousands numbers. The result is 75% of pupils know it or guessed it correctly, 20% counts the quantities contained in sticks and flats, and 5% of pupils give an incorrect answer or unable to tell what the materials represented.

Quantity and type of materials used activity examined the pupils’ knowledge of quantity of material and name a numeral correctly. From all ages, 7 till 12 years old, the data shown that one hundred per cent of pupils correctly set out single-digit numbers and two-digit numbers up to 13 and the number 20, 97% for two-digit numbers greater than 20. For three-digit numbers, pupils who can set out the correct quantity only is 85% and who can read the number only is 95%. The last is four-digit numbers, only for 10 until 12 pupils’ ages, 97% can set out quantity correctly.

Spatial organization of materials showed frequencies of responses which ignored place value by aged and number. For instance, in representing 11 or 13, unit cubes are placed directly in line with a stick representing 10. Almost 30% of pupils ignored account of place value, 45% of pupils always positioned the material in the same order as the digits represented, and 25% of pupils said that positioning of material is related to number value. Pupils in the youngest ages were likely to take account of place value than are older subjects.

Explanations of spatial organization measured a case where a numeral was read correctly, pupils were able to set out an equivalent concrete representation. Only 45% of pupils perceive of existence of place value in concrete representations of 10, for instance, by placing a green stick directly below the digit 1 and no material under the digit 0. 30% of pupils are not consistently followed conventional place value order, and 25% place value order was followed less frequently for smaller values than larger values and least frequently in representations of 10. It was not affected by gender or school, but strongly influenced by numerical value represented and pupils’ ages also.

If I compare the explanation of place value from this research “Learning multi-unit number concepts and understanding decimal place value” by Jennifer Hunter and Irene Tuner with the book of “Young mathematicians at work” by Catherine Twomey Fosnot and Maarten Dolk, I can get an overview of the similarities and the differences. The similarities that existed pupils always do the wrong perception in understanding of place value. They are not had a good concern for this thing whereas it is essential thing for development understanding number concept. Another similarity is pupils always make representation for material or problem in order to simplify it.

The differences are looked from the way of research work. In this research, it seems pupils are given numbers problem directly even though the materials are given also. But the problem is pupils have found the function of various materials to the problem, not only one. While from the book, teacher has chosen one material that certainly appropriate with the problem. Another is different problem, from the book, the problem is likely a short story of sentence. While in this study, the problem directly a number form.

By Ekasatya Aldila Afriansyah